Holiday Reading List 2018 – The Rationalist Delusion

Finally, this last year, long overdue, I picked up Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow (2011). And what a book it is. If you still thought you were a rational human being, deliberately making judgements, weighing pros and cons for every decision you make, consider this quote from Thinking Fast and Slow:

(..) emotion now looms much larger in our understanding of intuitive judgments and choices than it did in the past. The executive’s decision would today be described as an example of the affect heuristic [a mental shortcut], where judgments and decision are guided directly by feelings of liking and disliking, with little deliberation or reasoning.

This resonates so strongly with the work of Jonathan Haidt in The Righteous Mind, that it made me think of one of the themes of that book, the rationalist delusion:

As an intuitionist, I’d say that the worship of reason is itself an illustration of one of the most long-lived delusions in Western history: the rationalist delusion. It’s the idea that reasoning is our most noble attribute, one that makes us like the gods (for Plato) or that brings us beyond the “delusion” of believing in gods (for the New Atheists). The rationalist delusion is not just a claim about human nature. It’s also a claim that the rational caste (philosophers or scientists) should have more power, and it usually comes along with a utopian program for raising more rational children.

How’s that for some provocative ideas worth exploring this holiday?

Haidt’s The Righteous Mind is not on this year’s list because I used it in the past for a number of blogs on biases (see this one on morality bias; and this one on confirmation bias). But the ideas of that book strongly influenced the way I progressed onto the books of this year’s list. Here we go:

Thinking Fast and Slow. Daniel Kahneman. A landmark book if you want to make better decisions. Kahneman shows, that by relying mostly on system 1 (mental shortcuts based on feelings, emotions and morality) in decision-making, and not on system 2 (our rationalist selves), we make predictable errors of judgment. The intuitive system 1 is a lot more influential than your think. Kahneman:

This is the essence of intuitive heuristics [rules of thumb]: when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution.

Learn how you fool yourself and read about: the availability heuristic (or What-You-See-Is-All-There-Is heuristic), anchoring bias, the law of small numbers, availability bias, the halo effect, and many, many more.

The Economist have their own way of describing the rationalist delusion in a review of this outstanding book:

As Copernicus removed the Earth from the centre of the universe and Darwin knocked humans off their biological perch, Kahneman has shown that we are not the paragons of reason we assume ourselves to be.

The Master and His Emissary – The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. Iain McGilchrist. A different dichotomy than intuition and reason is discussed in this ‘fascinating book’ (Financial Times). The leading question here is: ‘Why is the brain divided?’ McGilchrist:

(..) the hierarchy of attention, for a number of reasons, implies a grounding role and an ultimately integrating role for the right hemisphere, with whatever the left hemisphere does at the detailed level needing to be founded on, and then returned to, the picture generated by the right.

This book is almost two books into one: the first part is steeped into neuroscience, tells us why the brain is divided, and which functions the left and right hemispheres perform. (If I would have to place Kahneman’s systems 1 and 2 in McGilchrist’s left and right hemispheres, system 1 would reside in the left, and system 2 in the right hemisphere.) In the second part of the book (called ‘How the Brain Has Shaped Our World’), the story unfolds in a dramatic way. McGilchrist takes us on a tour through the Ancient World (Plato, again, also see my blog on him here), the Renaissance, Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, to come to some daring propositions. One of the most striking ones is that the left hemisphere (the Emissary) has become so dominant that it has seized power over the right hemisphere (the Master), creating a Western culture with an obsession for structure, narrow self-interest and a mechanistic view of the world. I had to think of books on the 2016 reading list by John Gray and Matthew Crawford when I read this. True, or not, it makes for some great reading and stuff worth discussing over a good glass of wine during the Holidays.

Why Buddhism Is True. Robert Wright. No, I’m not going religious on you. And no, I’m not going Buddhist on you. Lauded by The New York Times Book Review, The Guardian, The New Yorker and Scientific American, this book is Darwinian in nature. There’s also a good deal of Kahneman and McGilchrist here:

Again, the part of the brain that controls language [system 2; left hemisphere] had generated a coherent, if false, explanation of behavior  ̶  and apparently had convinced itself of the truth of the explanation. The split-brain experiments powerfully demonstrated the capacity of the conscious self to convince itself that it’s calling the shots when it’s not. (..) In short, from natural selection’s point of view, it’s good for you to tell a coherent story about yourself, to depict yourself as a rational, self-aware actor. (..) It is possible to argue that the primary evolutionary function of the self is to be the organ of impression management [note: Haidt has a similar wording in that he talks about the press secretary].

With the help of modern evolutionary psychology, Wright explains that the mind is increasingly seen as having a modular design. Different modules were created by evolution to size up different situations and take action towards these situations. Much of this action goes on without you (the CEO) even knowing that action is being undertaken. Think about things such as fear, lust, love and many other feelings: are you calling the shots? From a very different angle than Kahneman’s, namely the angle from Buddhist mindfulness and meditation, Wright ends up at the same conclusion:

(..) our ordinary point of view, the one we’re naturally endowed with, is seriously misleading.

Wright goes on to explain why meditation can help us understand ourselves better:

Mindfulness meditation involves increased attentiveness to the things that cause our behavior  ̶  attentiveness to how perceptions influence our internal states and how certain internal states lead to other internal states and to behaviors.

This is an extraordinary book that takes mindfulness meditation out of the esoteric realm. It puts it straight into evolutionary psychology and hands us a tool to help us understand, and improve, our own decision-making.

Mindfulness for Creativity. Danny Penman. Now that I introduced mindfulness meditation above, there needed to be a book on the actual practice of meditation on this year’s list. Mindfulness meditation is still ‘weird’ enough that you have to explain to the world that you are not a tree-hugger, an anarchist or, well, a useless creature in general. Bill Gates, far from being a useless creature, put a book on meditation on his 5 best books of this year. However, even he still felt the needed to explain what the benefits of meditation for creativity are, and that it’s nothing to freak out over:

Back when I was avoiding music and TV in the hope of maintaining my focus, I knew that lots of other people were using meditation to achieve similar ends. But I wasn’t interested. I thought of meditation as a woo-woo thing tied somehow to reincarnation, and I didn’t buy into it. Lately, though, I’ve gained a much better understanding of meditation. I’m certainly not an expert, but I now meditate two or three times a week, for about 10 minutes each time. I now see that meditation is simply exercise for the mind, similar to the way we exercise our muscles when we play sports. For me, it has nothing to do with faith or mysticism. It’s about taking a few minutes out of my day, learning how to pay attention to the thoughts in my head, and gaining a little bit of distance from them.

Well, if it’s something that Bill Gates and Steve Jobs buy into (founders of two of the most valuable companies in the world), I think we should at least give it a try.

If you need more book recommendations, check out the summer reading lists of 2016, 2017 and 2018, and the holiday reading lists of 2016 and 2017.

Happy holidays, and happy reading!

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Summer Reading 2018: Time for Reflection and Re-Creation

The last two years I started the introduction to the summer reading list with the same quote (read all my blog post on reading via this link). For a different reason, I repeat it one more time:

. . .  the worst thing one can do to feel one knows things a bit deeper is to try to go into them a bit deeper. The sea gets deeper as you go further into it, according to a Venetian proverb. Curiosity is antifragile, like an addiction, and is magnified by attempts to satisfy it – books have a secret mission and ability to multiply, as everyone who has wall-to-wall bookshelves knows well (Nassim Taleb, Antifragile).

For this list, I tried to find books that get you a bit deeper inside yourself, instead of getting deeper in history, science, philosophy or (business) decision-making (i.e. some of the ‘things’ Taleb is talking about).

I picked up just these books because I did not read a lot of new books this year relevant for this blog. (I guessed you didn’t really want a review of books with titles such as Baby-led Weaning, Babywise or Your Baby Week by Week; as those were the books I did read the last months.) Picking up books that you’ve read before, and reading through underlined sections and annotations, is a great way to reflect on yourself: Why did you underline it? What notes did you make? Does it still make sense? Which things did you forget but you really should remember from now on? Etcetera.

Whilst flipping through the pages, the books below magically seem to build on one another like this:

  • You build something big, anything, by working on it bit by bit every single day. Things add up, like training for a marathon. One day, you look back and see all the work you have done leading to the thing you wanted to achieve. This concept is found in Bird by Bird and is mostly about writing but it goes for everything you want to achieve in life really.
  • To achieve the above, you need rituals. You have to sit down (or move about) at the same time every day. This helps prepare your unconscious for the task ahead. Rituals are introduced in Bird by Bird but are the prime subject in Daily Rituals.
  • But what should you be building on? That, of course, is something that you have to find out for yourself. Some intriguing thoughts on that can be found in David Foster Wallace: The Last Interview and The Three Marriages. What struck me is that finding the thing you should work on, is not about rationality. According to these two books it’s more about intuition and gut-feeling. But even then, it is hard work getting there.
  • Hard work and maybe insight. Wisdom too. And prudence. Those are the subjects of The Art of Worldly Wisdom and would make a nice addition to any reading list. But the emphasis on prudence (i.e. acting with or showing care and thought for the future) makes it especially helpful if you want to build something big.

Here is my list for this summer to inspire you to get a little closer to what drives you. Or maybe make some welcome changes as you read through these pages filled with wisdom.

Bird by Bird by Anne Lamott. A book about writing. But at the same time about life. The struggle to write a book, and how to start, can be read as a metaphor for anything you would like to achieve in life. One of the bits I loved:

You get your intuition back when you make space for it, when you stop the chattering of the rational mind. The rational mind doesn’t nourish you. You assume that it gives you the truth, because the rational mind is the golden calf that this culture worships, but this is not true. Rationality squeezes out much that is rich and juicy and fascinating.

Daily Rituals by Mason Currey. Currey, in the introduction, describes what this book is about:

The book’s title is Daily Rituals, but my focus in writing it was really people’s routines. The word connotes ordinariness and even a lack of thought; to follow a routine is to be on autopilot. But one’s daily routine is also a choice, or a whole series of choices. In the right hands, it can be a finely calibrated mechanism for taking advantage of a range of limited resources: time (the most limited resource of all) as well as willpower, self- discipline, optimism. A solid routine fosters a well- worn groove for one’s mental energies and helps stave off the tyranny of moods. This was one of William James’s favorite subjects. He thought you wanted to put part of your life on autopilot; by forming good habits, he said, we can “free our minds to advance to really interesting fields of action.”

You can see why this is a great companion to Bird by Bird. This is not a book to read in one sitting. Currey has a little chapter on the routines of more than hundred authors, philosophers, artists and musicians. It’s a good book to put on your night stand for the holidays. Or a book that you can pick up if you already know you will not have more than ten minutes undisturbed reading at a time. There are some big names here: Freud, Hemingway, Murakami, Proust, Louis Armstrong, Stephen Jay Gould and Andy Warhol, to name a few. A lot in this book echoes what Anne Lamott writes in bird by bird. Consider Murakami’s routine:

When he is writing a novel, Murakami wakes at 4:00 A.M. and works for five to six hours straight. In the afternoons he runs or swims (or does both), runs errands, reads, and listens to music; bedtime is 9:00. (..) “The repetition itself becomes the important thing; it’s a form of mesmerism. I mesmerize myself to reach a deeper state of mind.”

The Three Marriages by David Whyte. A book about work-life balance:

The current understanding of work-life balance is too simplistic. People find it hard to balance work with family, family with self, because it might not be a question of balance. Some other dynamic is in play, something to do with a very human attempt at happiness that does not quantify different parts of life and then set them against one another. We are collectively exhausted because of our inability to hold competing parts of ourselves together in a more integrated way.

What follows is a very unusual treatment of the work-life balance. It changed the way I look at my work and relationships. If you want to reflect deeply this summer, pick up this book. But only if you like a very new way of looking at your life:

The pursuit of the self is the pursuit of that part of us not defined by our worries and anxieties. [I had to pause here for at least 10 minutes.] But this pursuit begins only by admitting that human anxiety is endless and to be expected. These waves of existential anxiety may knock down the surface self, but there is another, deeper self with a larger perspective that was never knocked down at all. (..) The pursuit of the self is also the pursuit of that part of us that is untouched by our successes and accomplishments.

David Foster Wallace: The Last Interview. This little volume of interviews with the writer David Foster Wallace makes me want to read his fiction. Zadie Smith said of him: “In a culture that depletes you daily of your capacity for imagination, for language, for autonomous thought, complexity like Dave’s is a gift”. Again, there’s a lot on routines and rituals here, but also some good thoughts on life and work:

[W]hen you’re a child I don’t think you’re aware of how incredibly easy you have it, right? You have your own problems and you have your own burdens and chores and things you have to do. (..) I think when they [i.e. his parents] went into these quiet rooms and had to do things that it wasn’t obvious they wanted to do, I think there was a part of me that felt that something terrible was coming. But also, of course, now that we’re putatively grown up there’s also a lot of really, really interesting stuff and sometimes you sit in quiet rooms and do a lot of drudgery and at the end of it is a surprise or something very rewarding or a feeling of fulfillment.

Definitely a nice little volume for your summer reading list. For the Dave Eggers fans out there: he is one of the interviewers.

The Art of Worldly Wisdom by Balthasar Gracián. Written in the 17th century by a Jesuit priest. A keen observer of human behavior, his 300 observations give you excellent advice on how to get ahead in life. Although the book was written long ago, it still holds truths that you can use in your work as a manager and business decision-maker. This little volume, for some, is therefore included in a list of three great, timeless wisdom books: Machiavelli’s The Prince, Sun-Tzu’s The Art of War, and, thus, Baltasar Gracián’s The Art of Worldly Wisdom. I am only halfway through this book. Here are some quotes I found especially useful in a work setting:

Don’t outshine your boss. When you counsel someone, you should appear to be reminding him of something he had forgotten, not of the light he was unable to see. It is the stars who teach us this subtlety. They are brilliant sons, but they never dare to outshine the sun.

Never exaggerate. It isn’t wise to use superlatives. They offend the truth and cast doubt on your judgment. By exaggerating, you squander your praise and reveal a lack of knowledge and taste. (..) To overvalue something is a form of lying. It can ruin your reputation for good taste, and  ̶  even worse  ̶  for wisdom.

Be diligent [i.e. careful and conscientious in work and duties] and intelligent. Fools are fond of hurry: they take no heed of obstacles and act incautiously. The wise usually fail through hesitation. Fools stop at nothing, the wise at everything. Sometimes things are judged correctly but go wrong out of inefficiency and neglect. Readiness is the mother of luck. It is a great deed to leave nothing for the morrow. A lofty motto: make haste slowly.

For all management consultants out there:

End well. [B]e careful of the way you end things, and devote more attention to a successful exit than to a highly applauded entrance. What matters isn’t being applauded when you arrive  ̶  for that is common  ̶  but being missed when you leave. Rare are those who are still wanted.

And for everyone out there:

Be careful when you inform yourself about things. Much of our lives is spent gathering information. We see very few things for ourselves, and live trusting others. The ears are the back door of truth and the front door of deceit. Truth is more often seen than heard.

This wonderful book is to be read like Daily Rituals: take it in in small doses and do a lot of thinking about the deeper meaning and consequences for your strategies in work and life.

I hope this list inspires you to read this summer. Need more recommendations? Check out all my book reviews via this link.

Enjoy your summer.

 

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Holiday Reading to Blow Your Mind (and expand your perspective)

If reading up on philosophy can make you a more creative and effective manager, why not start by reading some non-business books that focus on contemporary philosophy?

Harvard Business Review argues that philosophy, through an increased ability for self-reflection, makes you a better leader. Reading philosophy:

(…) can promote business success by helping leaders to identify their values and strategic goals, synthesize information to attain those goals, and implement strong action plans.

Bloomberg writes about how philosophy can make you a better manager because it helps you to develop empathy (i.e. put yourself in someone else’s shoes). There is a warning though:

[Philosophy] doesn’t lead to easy answers, but it does help lead to the right questions. And that’s the true value of philosophy in business life. It can lead (…) to valuable self-reflection. But perhaps more importantly, it can help us think more clearly about the practical issues we face every day.

The Economist writes that real thought-leadership can only be achieved through reading ‘a few great thinkers’:

Inward-bound courses would do wonders for “thought leadership”. There are good reasons why the business world is so preoccupied by that notion at the moment: the only way to prevent your products from being commoditised or your markets from being disrupted is to think further ahead than your competitors. But companies that pose as thought leaders are often “thought laggards”: risk analysts who recycle yesterday’s newspapers, and management consultants who champion yesterday’s successes just as they are about to go out of business. The only way to become a real thought leader is to ignore all this noise and listen to a few great thinkers. You will learn far more about leadership from reading Thucydides’ hymn to Pericles than you will from a thousand leadership experts. You will learn far more about doing business in China from reading Confucius than by listening to “culture consultants”. Peter Drucker remained top dog among management gurus for 50 years not because he attended more conferences but because he marinated his mind in great books: for example, he wrote about business alliances with reference to marriage alliances in Jane Austen.

As much as I would love to dig deep into Thucydides here, I’ll keep it contemporary for now. Therefore, for this year’s holiday reading list, I selected some contemporary philosophy books by authors in the sphere of the humanities (a psychiatrist, an economist, a historian, and a moral philosopher among others).

It struck me that every single one of these authors has a different take on the state of our world and culture. Some argue that we (humans) are going into the right direction and there is a lot of progress in different fields. Others argue just the opposite. I find this quite intriguing. In the picture above, I’ve tried to put the books from this year’s holiday reading list on a scale from ‘pessimistic’ to ‘optimistic’. In discussions, some have suggested that the ‘pessimists’ should really be labelled ‘realists’; and those realists actually show much more insight in what it means to be human. I tend to agree. On top of that, people also suggested that one scale might be an oversimplification of where the authors stand: that it should be possible to introduce a second (and even a third axis). They probably have a point there too. However, I decided to stick with the scale for now. Both as a provocation to you, the reader, and a reminder to myself that I still have to come up with a better understanding than the ‘pessimist – optimist’ (or ‘no progress – progress’) dichotomy.

My recommendations for this holiday are (roughly in the order I read them, so ‘optimists’ and ‘pessimists’ in no particular order):

War, What Is It Good For. Ian Morris. This Professor of Classics at Stanford University argues that war has actually made society more productive and safer. It’s a sweeping view of world history from pre-historic times to the present. He introduces beautiful concepts such as the lucky latitudes, stationary bandits, and caging. Add to that the role of fortifications, cities, chariots, bronze, and gunpowder in shaping our civilizations (and the mere geographical (!) position of Germany that would lead to its tragic role in two world wars), and you have a book that will change your view on the role that warfare has had in the history of the world. In a review for this book, a Professor of Biological Anthropology at Harvard writes: “This book is equally horrific and inspiring, detailed and sweeping, light-hearted and deadly serious. For those who think war has been a universal disaster it will change the way they think about the course of history.”

Why Grow Up? Susan Neiman. Susan Neiman, a Harvard educated moral philosopher, held positions at Yale and Princeton, and is now director of the Einstein Forum in Berlin. This short book struck me because of the simplicity of its idea: in our lives we should always strive to bridge the gap between what is and what could be. Being a grown up is all about trying to bridge that gap through your endeavors. Whilst knowing that you can never really bridge the gap, and, very important, at the same time being comfortable with the idea that you will never reach your destination. In the process of reading this short book (perfect length for the holidays!), you will get acquainted with what Rousseau, Kant and Hume had to say about growing up (and how Neiman disagrees with them). She stresses the virtues of travelling, reading fiction, and living and working in other cultures than the one you grew up in. Two snippets (of many) that I especially liked: “We are kept dazzled by a wealth of small decisions”, and “Kant thought the Stoic advice was made for gods, not humans.”

The Silence of Animalson Progress and Other Modern Myths. John Gray. This former Professor of Politics at Oxford, Harvard and Yale doesn’t beat around the bush when he writes about the concept of progress: “Among the many benefits of faith in progress the most important may be that it prevents too much self-knowledge.” In a chapter called Humanism and Flying Saucers, he argues (if the chapter title itself wasn’t self-explanatory): “If belief in human rationality was a scientific theory it would long since have been abandoned”, and “Cognitive dissonance is the normal human condition”. Gray was actually the reason why I put ‘pessimist’ as the label on the left of the scale in the picture above (and you might start to get an inkling why…). Gray uses fiction (cf. Neiman and Heijne) by Orwell, Dostoevsky, and Conrad to show what the actual human condition is like. It’s fitting that Heijne (see below) uses roughly the same authors to come to a comparable gloomy sketch of the status of the world. It’s a beautifully written short book, full of insights that’ll make you question your world view. Although I rate him as a ‘pessimist’, I had to laugh out loud often because of his dark yet witty prose. If there’s one book you should read right now, it is The Silence of Animals.

Our Culture, What’s Left of It. Theodore Dalrymple. I only recently read this 2005 collection of articles after remembering some quotes I read in an old NRC Handelsblad article on Dalrymple. If the hypothesis holds that it is true that understanding other people’s arguments will make you a better decision-maker, I thought I would try to read a more conservative thinker like Dalrymple. He was shaped by working with urban poor all over the world as a prison psychiatrist. This has led to unique insights in the workings of ‘life at the bottom’ (as he calls it in a different book). Something that struck me as particularly insightful (and echoing the work of moral philosopher Jonathan Haidt and Nassim Taleb’s thinking) was: “But critics of social institutions and traditions (…) should always be aware that civilization needs conservation at least as much as it needs change. No man is so brilliant that he can work everything out for himself, so that the wisdom of ages [Taleb calls this heuristics; see my comments on Taleb’s book Antifragile] has nothing useful to tell him.” This is a kaleidoscopic collection of articles on Shakespeare, art, lust, and the transgression of moral standards. The Times Literary Supplement stated: “An urgent, important, almost an essential book (…) elegantly written, conscientiously argues, provocative, and fiercely committed.”

Antifragile – How to Live in a World We Don’t Understand. Nassim Taleb. A must read. I keep coming back to this book. But it’s hard to describe why. A former derivatives trader and risk analyst, Nassim Taleb made himself into some sort of a philosopher-statistician-writer who has held positions at the London and Oxford Business Schools. You could characterize him by being a skeptic; skeptic towards the scientific method (and very much a proponent of heuristics, or rules-of-thumb; also see my remark under Gray’s book):

(…) the best way to mitigate interventionism is to ration the supply of information, as naturalistically as possible. This is hard to accept in the age of the internet. It has been very hard for me to explain that the more data you get, the less you know what’s going on, and the more iatrogenics [harm caused by the healer] you will cause. People are still under the illusion that science means more data.

 He rants against just about anything in modernity:

We are moving into a phase of modernity marked by the lobbyist, the very, very limited liability corporation, the MBA, sucker problems, secularization (or rather reinvention of new sacred values like flags to replace altars), the tax man, fear of the boss, spending the weekend in interesting places and the workweek in a putatively less interesting one, the separation of work and leisure (though the two would look identical to someone from a wiser era), the retirement plan, argumentative intellectuals who would disagree with this definition of modernity, literal thinking, inductive inference [Taleb is very skeptical towards predicting future outcomes by extrapolating the past], philosophy of science, smooth surfaces, and egocentric architects. Violence is transferred from individuals to states. So is financial indiscipline. At the center of all this is the denial of antifragility.

I will not explain what he means with antifragility here; you should find out for yourself by reading this wonderful book. You might be irritated by his ability to put just about everything in a different light in a polemic way. But that’s exactly why you will gain new insights and be able to look at more things from a different angle.

Onbehagen (Discontent). Bas Heijne. A Dutch essay. A sharp analysis on why populism is rising and why that is inevitable. Heijne, a Dutch essayist who studied English language and literature and writes an influential column in NRC Handelsblad, questions if the worldview that he grew up with (i.e. progress) is still valid. With the help of fiction (again, remarkably, Dostoevsky and Conrad) he comes to the conclusion that we should not overestimate human rationality. He writes (book available in Dutch only as far as I know):

Wanneer het humanisme te zeker van zichzelf wordt, wordt het onherroepelijk naïef – en ook hypocriet. De mens laat zich niet rationeel beheersen. Hoed je voor de overmoed van de rede, het idee dat de wereld zich een kant op laat sturen, dat beschaving een blijvende garantie is tegen menselijke agressie en vernietingsdrang. Beschaving en verlichting roepen het onheil over zichzelf af zodra ze blind worden voor tegenkrachten – van buitenaf maar ook van binnenuit.

World beyond Your Head. Matthew Crawford. On my “to read” list for this holiday. From what I read about this book in Heijne’s essay (see above), Crawford goes on a philosophical journey to unravel why our contemporary society is at odds with human nature. The short supply of attention these days is not the result of technology (which helped shape social media and anecdotal news feeds). It is rooted in the philosophical worldview on the self, on the individual. The Guardian writes: “Like the Enlightenment philosophers he rebukes, Crawford makes deductions that stretch commonsense logic to its maximum extent and may have readers performing intellectual somersaults over his reasoning. For those who persevere, the experience should be rich and rewarding.”

Progress. Johan Norberg. This book by Johan Norberg, an economic historian, made this list because of an article in The Economist earlier this year. On top of that, it showed up as one of the ‘books of the year’ in the same newspaper. Also, it seems that this is an upbeat book that sits all the way on the right hand side of my makeshift scale from ‘pessimism’ to ‘optimism’. If you want to learn about the arguments of both the deniers of, and believers in, progress, Norberg’s book seems to be the book to learn about the argument of the ‘optimists’. The Economist writes:

Mr Norberg agrees with Steven Pinker, a psychologist, that humankind is also experiencing a “moral Flynn Effect” [the Flynn effect is a gradual rise in average IQ-scores since the 1930s]. As people grow more adept to abstract thought, they find it easier to imagine themselves in other people’s shoes. And there is plenty of evidence that society has grown more tolerant. As recently as 1964, even the American Civil Liberties Union agreed that homosexuals should be barred from government jobs.

To summarize: whether you are an ‘optimist’ or a ‘pessimist’, you should read up on the arguments of both sides presented in this year’s holiday reading list. These books will present different sides of the argument and will surely help you be a more creative decision-maker. Happy holidays, and happy reading!

P.S. For those of you who worry I abandoned my project “What Every Manager Should Know About…” in relation to the EU-guideline on the disclosure on non-financial information, fear not: I will be back with post #3 in that series – on governance and corruption – in January.

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